This area is composed of three distinct topographical regions: the plain, the cliffs, and the plateau.
Within these regions the Dogon population of about 300,000 is most heavily concentrated along a 200 kilometer (125 mile) stretch of escarpment called the Cliffs of Bandiagara.
These sandstone cliffs run from southwest to northeast, roughly parallel to the Niger River, and attain heights up to 600 meters (2000 feet).
The cliffs provide a spectacular physical setting for Dogon villages built on the sides of the escarpment. There are approximately 700 Dogon villages, most with fewer than 500 inhabitants.
A Dogon family compound in the village of Pegue is seen from the top of the Bandiagara escarpment. During the hot season, the Dogon sleep on the roofs of their earthen homes.
Abdule Koyo, a Dogon man, stands on the top of the Bandiagara escarpment that overlooks the Bongo plains. As the rocky land around the Bandiagara has become less and less fertile, the Dogon have moved farther from the cliffs. Millet cultivation is more productive in the fertile Bongo plains.
Without any equipment but his own muscle and expertise, a Dogon man climbs hundreds of meters above the ground. Ireli villagers use ropes made of baobab bark to climb the Bandiagara cliffs in search of pigeon guano and Tellem artifacts. The pigeon guano is used as fertilizer and can be sold at the market for $4 per sack. The Tellem artifacts, such as brass statues and wooden headrests, bring high prices from Western art collectors.
The early histories are informed by oral traditions that differ according to the Dogon clan being consulted and archaeological excavation much more of which needs to be conducted.
Because of these inexact and incomplete sources, there are a number of different versions of the Dogon's origin myths as well as differing accounts of how they got from their ancestral homelands to the Bandiagara region. The people call themselves 'Dogon' or 'Dogom', but in the older literature they are most often called 'Habe', a Fulbe word meaning 'stranger' or 'pagan'.
Certain theories suggest the tribe to be of ancient Egyptian descent. They next migrated to Libya, then somewhere in the regions of Guinea or Mauritania.
Around 1490 AD, fleeing invaders and/or drought, they migrated to the Bandiagara cliffs of central Mali.
Carbon-14 dating techniques used on excavated remains found in the cliffs indicate that there were inhabitants in the region before the arrival of the Dogon. They were the Toloy culture of the 3rd to 2nd centuries BC, and the Tellem culture of the 11th to 15th centuries AD.
The religious beliefs of the Dogon are enormously complex and knowledge of them varies greatly within Dogon society. Dogon religion is defined primarily through the worship of the ancestors and the spirits whom they encountered as they slowly migrated from their obscure ancestral homelands to the Bandiagara cliffs.
There are three principal cults among the Dogon; the Awa, Lebe and Binu.
The Awa is a cult of the dead, whose purpose is to reorder the spiritual forces disturbed by the death of Nommo, a mythological ancestor of great importance to the Dogon.
Members of the Awa cult dance with ornate carved and painted masks during both funeral and death anniversary ceremonies. There are 78 different types of ritual masks among the Dogon and their iconographic messages go beyond the aesthetic, into the realm of religion and philosophy.
The primary purpose of Awa dance ceremonies is to lead souls of the deceased to their final resting place in the family altars and to consecrate their passage to the ranks of the ancestors.
The cult of Lebe, the Earth God, is primarily concerned with the agricultural cycle and its chief priest is called a Hogon.
All Dogon villages have a Lebe shrine whose altars have bits of earth incorporated into them to encourage the continued fertility of the land.
According to Dogon beliefs, the god Lebe visits the hogons every night in the form of a serpent and licks their skins in order to purify them and infuse them with life force. The hogons are responsible for guarding the purity of the soil and therefore officiate at many agricultural ceremonies.
In the village of Sangha, onion bulbs are smashed and shaped into balls that are dried in the sun. The onion balls are trucked as far away as the Ivory Coast to be sold as an ingredient for sauces. Introduced by the French in the 1930s, onions are one of the Dogon's only cash crop.
Millet Harvest - Dogon women pound millet in the village of Kani Kombal. Millet is of vital importance to the Dogon. They sow millet in June and July, after the rains begin. The millet is harvested in October.
Nowadays, the Dogon blacksmiths forge mainly scrap metal recuperated from old railway lines or car wrecks. So, little by little, the long process of iron ore reduction, which demands a perfect knowledge of fire and its temperatures, has been abandoned.
One of the last smeltings was done in Mali, in 1995, by the Dogon blacksmiths. The event became the subject of a film which was entitled 'Inagina, The Last House of Iron'. Eleven blacksmiths, who still hold the secrets of this ancestral activity, agreed to perform a last smelt. They gathered to invoke the spirits.
They sunk a mine shaft, made charcoal, and built a furnace with earth and lumps of slag. The last furnace - or Inagina -meaning literally the'house of iron' gave birth to 69 kilos of iron of excellent quality. With this, the blacksmiths forged traditional tools intended for agriculture, the making of weapons, and jewelery for the Dogon people.
Youdiou Dances - During the Dama celebration, Youdiou villagers circle around two stilt dancers. The dance and costumes imitate the tingetange, a long-legged water bird. The dancers execute difficult steps while teetering high above the crowd.
The cult of Binu is a totemic practice and it has complex associations with the Dogon's sacred places used for ancestor worship, spirit communication and agricultural sacrifices. Marcel Griaule and his colleagues came to believe that all the major Dogon sacred sites were related to episodes in the Dogon myth of the creation of the world, in particular to a deity named Nommo.
Binu shrines house spirits of mythic ancestors who lived in the legendary era before the appearance of death among mankind. Binu spirits often make themselves known to their descendants in the form of an animal that interceded on behalf of the clan during its founding or migration, thus becoming the clan's totem.
The priests of each Binu maintain the sanctuaries whose facades are often painted with graphic signs and mystic symbols. Sacrifices of blood and millet porridge the primary crop of the Dogon are made at the Binu shrines at sowing time and whenever the intercession of the immortal ancestor is desired.
Through such rituals, the Dogon believe that the benevolent force of the ancestor is transmitted to them.
Kananga masks form geometric patterns. These masks represent the first human beings. The Dogon believe that the Dama dance creates a bridge into the supernatural world. Without the Dama dance, the dead cannot cross over into peace.
Their self-defense comes from their social solidarity which is based on a complex combination of philosophic and religious dogmas, the fundamental law being the worship of ancestors. Ritual masks and corpses are used for ceremonies and are kept in caves. The Dogons are both Muslims and Animists.
A 'Togu Na' - 'House of Words' - stands in every Dogon village and marks the male social center. The low ceiling, supported by carved or sculptured posts, prevents over zealous discussions from escalating into fights. Symbolic meaning surrounds the Togu Na. On the Gondo Plain, Togu Na pillars are carved out of Kile wood and often express themes of fertility and procreation. Many of the carvings are of women's breasts, for as a Dogon proverb says, "The breast is second only to God."
Unfortunately, collectors have stolen some of the more intricately carved pillars, forcing village elders to defacetheir Togu Na posts by chopping off part of the sculpted wood. This mutilation of the sculpted pillars assures their safety.
Amaguime Dolu, a diviner in the village of Bongo, performs a ritual. He derives meaning and makes predictions from grids and symbols in the sand. At dusk, he draws a questions in the sand for the sacred fox to answer. The Dogon people believe the fox has supernatural powers. The Dogon may ask questions such as: "Does the man I love also love me?" or "Should I take the job offer at the mission church?" In the morning, the diviner will read the fox prints on the sand and make interpretations. The fox is sure to come because offerings of millet, milk and peanuts are made to this sacred animal.
- The Washington Post
- Robert Temple The Sirius Mystery
According to Dogon mythology, Nommo was the first living being created by Amma, the sky god and creator of the universe.
He soon multiplied to become six pairs of twins. [This is a metaphor for our original 12-strand DNA. Our present physical DNA contains 2 strands which hold the genetic codes for our physical evolvement.]
One twin rebelled against the order established by Amma, [This is a metaphor for one source/soul splitting into two polarities - yin /yang, when it enters into the electro-magnectic energies of third dimension] thereby destabilizing the universe. In order to purify the cosmos and restore its order, Amma sacrificed another of the Nommo, whose body was cut up and scattered throughout the universe. This distribution of the parts of the Nommo's body is seen as the source for the proliferation of Binu shrines throughout the Dogon region.
The Dogon say that their astronomical knowledge was given to them by the Nommo. The Dogon elder, Ogotemelli, describes them variously as having the upper part as a man and the lower portion as snake; or as having a ram's head with serpent body.
Author Robert temple describes the Nommo as amphibious beings sent to Earth from the Sirius star system for the benefit of humankind. They look like Merfolk; Mermaids and Mermen. [Metaphor: amphibius - referring to the flow of the collective unconscious - creational source].
After the landing in a space ship, something with four legs appeared and dragged the vessel to a hollow, which filled with water until the vessel floated in it. The Dogon, call this spaceship 'Pelu Tolo' or 'Star of the Tenth Moon'.
These aliens supposedly came from the Sirian star system. Their spaceship spiraled down from the sky. It landed somewhere to the northeast of the Dogon's present homeland. There was a great noise and wind. The ship landed on three legs, skidded to a stop, scoring the ground. Four legs appeared and dragged the vessel to a hollow, which filled with water until the vessel floated.
At the same time a new star was seen in the sky, which possibly was a large space ship. The star was described by the Dogon as having a circle of reddish rays around it. This circle of rays was like a spreading spot yet it still remaining the same size.
There is a Dogon drawing of the spaceship hovering in the sky, waiting for the Nommo who landed on the Earth. It represents three stages of 'Pelu Tolo' when it is spurting different amounts of blood or flames [as if it crash landed].
They called the Nommo 'Masters of the Water', 'The Monitors', 'The Teachers or Instructors', 'Saviors', and 'Spiritual Guardians'.
AThe Dogons believe their gods are already here.
I have to wonder if the word 'Nommo' means 'No More' - 'No Longer'.
The Dogons have a unique distinction. Supposedly when they left Egypt and migrated to Mali where they brought with them sacred knowledge in the form of oral traditions - perhaps handed down by the ancient priests of Egypt. There are oral tradition about interaction with Amphibious Gods who came to Earth from the star Sirius (now called Sirius A).
Dogon astronomical lore goes back at least 5000 years. This knowledge most likely dates back to the time of the ancient Egyptian priests - who stored their knowledge as their civilization was destroyed. This knowledge was too be part of our collective unconsciousness - to be remembered - to be brought to the public - when it was time for humanity to make great changes. These changes are reflected in all ancient prophecies. The information is about creation by Geometry - Mathematical patterns or formulas. We sense change in our thinking and our souls. We dream unusal dreams about changes and look for Magic in our lives, moveis, books, tV shows. We experience beyond third dimension.
The souls of children, teens and young adults are often called Indigo Children - Children of the Blue Ray sense this. They are telekinetic sometimes moving objects - or bending objects with their minds.
This collective unconscious is a program of grids. The Dogon draw grids. They understand the nature of our reality, based on an electromagnetic grid program that stores memory - The Matrix is the grids.
Following the pattern of the grids ...... Dogon legend came with them from Egypt based on the ancient religions and the mystery school teachings of Isis and Osiris. It all begins in the area that was Sumer - The Cradle of Civilization - but in truth the area that surround the Great Pyramid. The Egyptian Goddess Isis is identified by the Egyptians with the star Sirius. The Dogons knew about Sirius long before modern man discovered the star system. Their religious tradition, dating back to their Egyptian roots, was later imparted through Greek migratory patterns. The name Sirius was given by the ancient Greeks.
Planet Earth has many metaphors, archetypes and symbols that help us understand the nature of our creation. To this end we study the heavens and celestial blueprints and the physical planet, to unravel secrets buried until it was time.....
The priests said that Sirius had a companion star that was invisible to the human eye. They also stated that the star moved in a 50-year elliptical orbit around Sirius, that it was small and incredibly heavy, and that it rotated on its axis.
Initially the anthropologists wrote it off publishing the information in an obscure anthropological journal, because they didn't appreciate the astronomical importance of the information.
What they didn't know was that since 1844, astronomers had suspected that Sirius A had a companion star. This was in part determined when it was observed that the path of the star wobbled. In 1862 Alvan Clark discovered the second star making Sirius a binary star system (two stars).
In the 1920's it was determined that Sirius B, the companion of Sirius, was a white dwarf star. White dwarfs are small, dense stars that burn dimly. The pull of its gravity causes Sirius' wavy movement. Sirius B is smaller than planet Earth.
The Dogon name for Sirius B is Po Tolo. It means star - tolo and smallest seed - po. Seed refers to creation. In this case - human creation.
By this name they describe the star's smallness. It is, they say, the smallest thing there is.
They also claim that it is the heaviest star and is white in color.
The Dogon thus attribute to Sirius B its three principal properties as a white dwarf: small, heavy, white.
souls that have crossed over. This belief is also shared with the Dogon.
Creation is linked to the Great Pyramid which links to Orion in the Kings Chamber (male). I have been there and connected - and to Sirius in the Queens Chamber (female) - Isis - Not far from the Pleaides - The Seven Sisters The sky is like a big giant map of messages a blueprint, if you will, of creational patterns. Ancient civilizations named the planets and created myths about them - all linked to the heavens and gods who created humans and came to Earth from the sky.
Isis and Osiris - Zeus and Hera - Amma (not sure about his female counterpart but he had to have one as this matrix and grid is all based on opposites - polarities - like a magnetic (north and south).
and is the brightest star in our night sky.
The Dogon also describe this 'star' specifically as having
The Dogons have described perfectly the DNA pattern made by this elliptical orbit created by the two stars as they rotate make around each other. They believe Sirius to be the axis of the universe, and from it all matter and all souls are produced in a great spiral motion.
The Dogon also claimed that a third star Emme Ya - sorghum female - exists in the Sirius system. Larger and lighter than Sirius B, this star revolves around Sirius A as well. It has not been proven to exist, though some people have called it Sirius C.
Sirius C translated from the Dogon language into English is called the "Sun of Women". It is described by the Dogan as "the seat of the female souls of living or future beings". Its symbol contains two pair of lines that are relevant features of a Dogan legend. The Dogon believe that Sirius C sends out two pairs of beams and that the beams represent a feminine figure.
Some of the ancient Egyptian temples, such as the Temple of Isis at Denerah, were created so that the light of the helical rising of Sirius would travel down the main corridor to place its red glow upon the altar in the inner sanctum of the temple. When that light reached the altar, the beam of light from Sirius was transformed into Sothis, the Star Goddess, Isis.
In a manner of speaking, the same belief system was involved in the Greek Temples, such as the Parthenon, which were oriented to receive the beams of light from the Pleiades into their inner sanctums, where the beams were then transformed into seven women. As the beams from the Pleiades entered the Egyptian temple of Hathor it became the seven Hathors female judges of mankind.
Within the Dogon tradition, those pairs of feminine figures beamed down from the Star/Sun/Planet of Women to their original home near the Hoggar mountains bringing many aspects of civilization to the ancestors of their tribes.
Dogon oral traditions state that for thousands of years they have known that the Earth revolves around the Sun, that Jupiter's has moons and that Saturn's has rings.
The Dogons calendar is quite non-traditional in that its fifty year cycle is based neither on the Earth's rotation around the Sun (as is our Julian calendar) nor the cycles of the Moon (a lunar calendar). Instead, the Dogon culture centers around the rotation cycle Sirius B which encircles the primary star Sirius A every 49.9 - or 50 years.
In a remote, rocky, desolate and acrid region of Western Africa, a tribe called the Dogon scratch out a way of life that has changed little over the centuries. With traditions firmly rooted in agriculture, western technology has no place in their lives, although their philosophy and religion is both rich and complex.
The exact origin of the Dogon tribe is lost in history, however they are known to have settled in the Bandiagara Plateau, at the Southern edge of the Sahara desert (where they remain today) some time between the 13th and 16th centuries. They are originally believed to have been of Egyptian descent.
Today the tribe has a population of 600,000; 138,000 of whom live in Burkina Faso, with the majority of 462,000 living in Mali itself.
The Dogon way of life is steeped in astronomical tradition based on a knowledge kept by the tribe’s priests that dates back to 3200 BCE. It is this knowledge that makes the tribe so remarkable, for they appear to know facts not supposedly known to man until the twentieth century.
The Dogon have long held that the star Sirius, some 8.7 light years away, has a companion star which is invisible to the human eye. They state that this companion star, which rotates on its axis, has a 50-year elliptical orbit around the visible Sirius and is extremely heavy. They also have knowledge of the rings of Saturn, Jupiter’s satellites and other detailed astronomical data some, of which, it has to be acknowledged is inaccurate.
This knowledge was first recorded by two French anthropologists, Marcel Griaule (below) and Germain Dieterlen following discussions with four Dogon priests in the 1930s. Perhaps none of this seems remarkable, however Sirius B was only seen for the first time by telescope in 1970 when photographed by Irving Lindenblad of the US Naval Observatory. Yet the Dogon had apparently known about this second star for millennia.
The renowned astronomer, Carl Sagan concluded that the Dogon could not have acquired their knowledge without contact with an advanced technological civilisation. He suggested, however, that the civilisation was terrestrial rather than extraterrestrial in origin (1).
Sagan believed that the Dogon gained their knowledge from western travellers who visited the tribes during the 1920 and 1930s. His view is that these travellers would have discussed astronomy with the Dogon priests who would then have weaved this new information into older traditions, which in turn, mislead the anthropologists. However, this is purely conjecture, accurate though it may be.
It is true, however, that there have been French schools in that area teaching geography and natural history in their curriculum since 1907 (the Republic of Mali was formerly known as French Sudan). It has also been noted that there has been a nearby Muslim University at Timbuktu since the 16th century and evidence that some members of the Dogon fought side by side with the French during the First World War (2). Could these have been the sources of the Dogon knowledge?
Robert Temple, author of ‘The Sirius Mystery’ thinks not. "The two French anthropologists [Griaule and Dieterlen] started their work in 1931, and they are positive that the Dogon knew details about Sirius B when they arrived …Eddington revealed the superdensity of Sirius B around 1926 … so there is a narrow period …when one has to imagine some group of amateur Western astronomers rushing out to … Mali and implanting this knowledge in the presumably pliant minds of the Dogon."(3)
The Dogon account for their ‘forbidden’ knowledge, however, appears equally unlikely. They claim that a people from the Sirius system called the ‘Nommo’ visited Earth thousands of years ago.
The Nommos were described as ugly, amphibious creatures that resembled mermen and mermaids (right). (Incidently, it should be remembered that humans and other mammals originally evolved from amphibians.)
According to Dogon legend, the Nommos lived on a planet that orbits another star in the Sirius system. They landed on Earth in an ‘ark’ that made a spinning descent to the ground with great noise and wind. Temple gives the following account of this event. "The [Dogon] descriptions of the landing of the ark are extremely precise. The ark is said to have landed on the earth to the north-east of the Dogon country, which is where the Dogon claim to have come from originally.
"The Dogon describe the sound of the landing of the ark. They say the ‘word’ of the Nommo was cast down by him in the four directions as he descended, and it sounded like the echoing of the four large stone blocks being struck with stones by the children, according to special rhythms, in a very small cave near Lake Debo. Presumably a thunderous vibrating sound is what the Dogon are trying to convey. One can imagine standing in the cave and holding one’s ears at the noise. The descent of the ark must have sounded like a jet runway at close range." (4)
The Dogon claim that not only did the Nommos give them knowledge about Sirius B, they also advised that Jupiter has four major moons, that Saturn has rings, and that the planets orbit the Sun. Much of this knowledge was not accepted or known until recent centuries.
These, then, are the two known accounts of how the Dogon received their knowledge of Sirius B (the tiny dot to the lower right of the large star Sirius pictured on the first page of this chapter.) Whilst Sagan’s theory has more immediate appeal, it does not account for a 400 year old Dogon artefact that apparently depicts the Sirius configuration, nor the ceremonies held by the Dogon that can be traced back to at least the 13th Century to celebrate the cycle of Sirius A and B, nor how they knew about the super density of Sirius B, a fact only discovered a few years before the anthropologists recorded the Dogon story.
These facts are enshrined in ancient Dogon rituals, portrayed in sand drawings, built into their sacred architecture and can be seen in carvings and patterns dating back hundreds if not thousands of years.
So, how can this knowledge be accounted for? It certainly predates the modern ‘discovery’ of Sirius B by hundreds of years and therefore any talk of westerners contaminating the Dogon traditions becomes irrelevant.
Yet it is unlikely that if the Dogon had had early contact with an extraterrestrial race that this would have happened in isolation. We know that the Dogon originated elsewhere in Africa spreading out to Mali by the 13th to 16th centuries. There should therefore be evidence of this contact, if it did happen, in the traditions of other related cultures.
And there is, for the creatures described by the Dogon also feature in Babylonian, Greek and Sumerian mythology.
From Berossus, a Babylonian priest, there is a description of creatures known as the ‘Annedoti’, the ‘Repulsive Ones’. These Annedoti were fishmen who introduced civilisation. The first and most famous of these was called ‘Oannes’ or ‘Oe’, who instructed the Babylonians "in everything which could tend to soften manners and humanise mankind" (5).
Fishbodied aliens are also featured in Greek mythology, notably in the island of Rhodes, with its culture-bearing gods, the ‘Telchines’. (Above, the hounds of Actaeon. According to legend, these were the survivors of the Telchines.) Diodorus Siculus, the Greek historian, wrote that they were "the discoverers of certain arts and introduced other things which are useful for the life of mankind." (6). Other texts speak of them being "submarine magic spirits". They had "dog’s heads and flippers for hands" (7). The Philistines also worshipped "Dagon and Atargis"; two amphibian deities who had human bodies but the tails of fish.
There is also some evidence to tie the Dogon claims into Egyptian mythology. The Egyptian dog god Anubis is often identified with Osiris, companion of the goddess Isis. Temple concludes that as Isis herself was identified with Sirius, it is reasonable to suppose that her companion was identified with the companion of Sirius, suggesting that the Egyptians knew of the existence of Sirius B.
Temple realised the implications of his work: "When I started writing this book [The Sirius Mystery] in earnest in 1967, the entire question was framed in terms of an African tribe called the Dogon … the result in 1974 is that I have been able to show that the information which the Dogon possess is really more than 5000 years old and was possessed by the Ancient Egyptians in the pre-dynastic times before 3200BC." (8)
It is this Egyptian connection that is so intriguing. We have already seen that from no-where, the Egyptians suddenly formed a technologically proficient society with astronomical, mathematical and other knowledge that should have been unknown to them. Could the basis of Von Daniken’s claims (as opposed to the evidence he draws on to support them) be accurate?
There is one piece of scientific fact that could prove or disprove the claims once and for all, for the Dogon speak of a third star, Sirius C, around which the Nommos’ planet revolves. If the existence of this star is verified then, the rest of the Dogon claims would have to be taken as probable fact. To date, however, there is no information on the existence of Sirius C. (It should be remembered that it was as late as 1930 that a planet was discovered in our own solar system, so Sirius C could well be undiscovered.)
Yet what we do have is a wealth of information regarding possible extraterrestrial contacts with the planet Earth, and when put together with the Dogon claims, the puzzles over forbidden knowledge, and pictorial evidence, a convincing case appears to emerge.
It is all too easy to assume that the extraterrestrial phenomenon is a product of a latter-day television age and gullibility. Yet sightings of mysterious objects in the sky go back into the depths of history.
Of course the further one goes back, the more fact, myth, culture and religious illustration become blurred, however there are some ‘facts’ that defy reasonable explanation.
One of the earliest possible ‘records’ of extraterrestrial contact was discovered by Tschi Pen Loa formerly of the University of Peking. He found drawings some 47,000 years old on a Hunan Mountain and on an island in Lake Tungting. These granite pictures showed people with large trunks and cylindrical objects in the sky on which similar figures are seen standing (9).
However probably the earliest authenticated report of a UFO can be found in an ancient Indian text called the Samarangana-Sartradhara that dates back to at least 500BCE. In one passage of this text, there is a description of curious machines called ‘vimanas’, which can fly and be controlled by pilots. The same devices are described in the Hindu epics Mahabharata and Ramayana as military machines with the capability of carrying ‘death’ to anywhere in the world.
Roman writers make reference to strange sights in the sky. Livy (59 BCE-AD 17) described a ‘sighting’ in 214 BCE at Hadria in Italy that looked like an alter in the sky. Pliny the Elder (AD23-79) refers to ‘gleaming beams in the sky’ in his De Rerum Naturae, which describes how, in 66BCE, a ‘spark’ fell from a star to the Earth, became as large as the Moon, and then, shrinking in size returned to the sky.
Inevitably we can only speculate as to what was seen. Others who believe in ancient contact have presented cave and rock paintings in support of their arguments.
Such pictures have been quickly dismissed by others who claim that they are merely pictures of hunters wearing ceremonial head-dresses or masks as a ritual part of their culture. Whilst this may be an acceptable explanation, it does not account for the similarity of pictures from cultures on opposite sides of the oceans thousands of years ago. For example, the above picture (right) is from a pre-historic rock carving near Capo di Ponte in Italy, whilst the picture (above - left) is from the Toro Muerte Desert in Peru, on the other side of the Atlantic Ocean, yet the headgear drawn is almost identical.
Of course, too much can be read into a couple of primitive pictures, if that’s all that existed, but it in fact there are other strange representations noted in pictures and images throughout the world. For example, this ancient aboriginal cave drawing (above) from 5000 years ago appears to show strange beings with non-human features.
In 1961, the Russian astronomer Alexander Kazantsev brought to the attention of the readers of the then Soviet magazine ‘Smena’ a discovery made by Henri Labote in the Tassili plateau in the Sahara desert. Labote had found sculpted rocks showing figures with strange rounded heads and other mysterious scenes. These sculptures have been dated to circa. 6000BCE (10).
These images are all the more remarkable because of their similarity to the costumes worn in rituals of the Kayapo Indians of Brazil, a tribe that has existed for at least 4000 years. This tribe’s rituals commemorate Gods descending from the heavens bringing with them advanced knowledge and skills.
The ceremonial costume shown here (left) represents such a ‘Teacher from Heaven’. Its resemblance to a modern day astronaut’s suit is remarkable.
Similarly this 3000-year-old statue (right) found on the Equador-Bolivian border also appears to represent a humanoid in a space suit.
Yet caution has to be advised when considering these ancient images for we can only cast modern day man’s eyes over them and offer a modern interpretation of what our ancestor’s were attempting to record.
For some of the images, however, our knowledge of past cultures can offer a better insight into what the artists are trying to portray. For example, at first glance, the Egyptian mural (below) appears to show in the upper left-hand area a helicopter, with the upper right image appearing to be a boat or even a submarine. The image below that resembles an airplane (or even a UFO) and the bottom image could be taken as a jet-plane.
Yet, in fact, the hieroglyphs are not a record of ancient knowledge of machines similar to modern technology, but merely a co-incidental combination of quite common ancient Egyptian symbols.
Again this Japanese Dogu sculpture has been proposed by some as the representation of a ‘space-visitor’.
This 5000-year-old artefact shows a figure wearing what appears to be a helmet, and even goggles that should not have existed in that period of history.
However, although looking bizarre and out of place, the sculpture can hardly be deemed proof of extraterrestrial contact.
Nevertheless some of the ancient images are quite intriguing.
Whilst this Neolithic cave painting from circa 3000BCE from south-west France seems to depict a landscape rich in wildlife but with strange circular discs dotted around the image, other ancient pictures appear to be much more explicit.
Take for example this cave painting from circa 2000BCE found on the Russian-Chinese border. It could of course be argued that our modern eyes can only interpret pictures in certain ways, however (and perhaps falling into this trap) it appears that the figure closest to the viewer is clutching some form of dial, the furthest away individual has a helmet on with antenna, and what appears to be a UFO under some form of propulsion hovering above them both. Few of the features in this picture appear compatible with images that should have formed the everyday world of ancient man.
The above picture appears all the more convincing when compared with the plate (below) which appears to show a type of alien known as a ‘Grey’ and a ‘UFO’. This plate is thousands of years old, however the idea of ‘Greys’ is supposedly a totally modern concept, first featured in Hollywood blockbusters.
It will be remembered that other images of UFOs and alien type figures and astronauts also featured on the stones at Ica, whose origins are lost in the depths of time.
One of the earliest ‘UFO’ reports came from Ancient Egypt. Writer Brinsley Le Poer Trench (left) quotes in his book ‘Sky People’ from a papyrus found amongst the papers of Professor Alberto Tulli, former director of the Egyptian museum at the Vatican. The papyrus was from the original annals of Pharaoh Thutmose III (d.1436BCE), the grandfather of the intrepid Thutmose IV who had investigated the pyramids. Unfortunately it was badly damaged with many of the hieroglyphics being unreadable. Despite this Prince Boris de Rachewiltz was still able to offer a translation:
"In the year 22, of the third month of winter, sixth hour of the day … the scribes of the House of Life found it was a circle of fire that was coming in the sky … it had no head, the breath of its mouth had a foul odour. Its body one rod long and one rod wide. It had no voice. Their hearts became confused through it: then they laid themselves on their bellies … they went to the Pharaoh … to report it.
"His majesty ordered … has been examined … as to all which is written in the papyrus rolls of the House of Life. His majesty was meditating on what had happened. Now after some days had passed, these things became more numerous in the sky than ever. They shone more in the sky than the brightness of the sun, and extended to the limits of the four supports of the heavens … Powerful was the position of the fire circles. The army of the Pharaoh looked on him in their midst. It was after supper. Thereupon, these fire circles ascended higher in the sky towards the south…" (11)
In 1946, French anthropologist Marcel Griaule was initiated into the ancient Dogon religion. Central to its belief is that Sirius, the Dog Star, has an invisible companion star, many times denser than the Earth, that travels in an elliptical orbit around the Sirius once every 50 years. The existence of this companion, an enormously dense, 'white dwarf' known as Sirius B, was first suspected by astronomers only in the 1830's and then first seen through a telescope in 1862. The Dogons have for thousands of years possessed knowledge of the existence of Sirius's companion star, called Sirius B. Furthermore, they knew of its status as a dwarf star, for in their legends they referred to it as "small and heavy." Yet Sirius B is totally invisible to the eye, in addition to which it is obliterated by Sirius A. In fact, only in the last century was the existence of Sirius B revealed to western science with the aid of the telescope.
Sirius and Sirius "B" were once where our sun now is. Sirius A being 10,000 times brighter than Sirius "B" (Digitaria). The Dogon consider Sirius "B" as the most important star in the sky although it is invisible. In 1862 the American Alvan Clark looked through the largest telescope then existing and saw a faint point of light where Sirius B should be, thus confirming its existence. In 1915 Dr. W. S. Adams of Mt. Wilson Observatory made the necessary observations to learn the temperature of Sirius B, which is 8,000 degrees - half as much again as the sun. It began to be realized that Sirius B was an intensely hot star which radiated three to four times more light and heat per square foot than the sun. It then became possible to calculate the size of Sirius B, which is only three times the radius of earth, yet its mass was just a little less than our sun. This star according to Dogon mythology is composed of sagala, a form of metal unknown on earth (the root of Sagala meaning both "Strong" and "Heat"). Sagala could be an equivalent to the degenerate and superdense matter of white dwarf stars.
Sirius is actually the brightest star in the sky. It is nine light years away, not particularly close. Often, it is called "the Dog star." Its cycles were closely followed by the ancient Egyptians. The Sirius Mystery takes a scholarly look at the question of whether earth has, in the past, been visited by intelligent beings from the region of the star Sirius. The entire Sirius Binary System is also surrounded by an Oort Cloud, a cometary belt of small ice/methane bodies very similar to the one surrounding our own system but of only about half the density. This Oort Cloud orbits at about 50,000 AU from the star.
Dog days are here again
In the Northern Hemisphere, the hottest part of summer is generally from July through August; the time and months vary in different continents all around the world. During this time, Sirius, a star in the constellation Canis Major (Big Dog), can be seen rising before sunrise. Sirius, commonly called the Dog Star, is the brightest star in the sky (second only to the Sun). The term "dog days" was coined by the ancient Romans because they believed that the heat given off by the Dog Star added to the Sun's heat, thereby causing the hot weather. The Egyptians associated the appearance of the Dog Star with the flooding of the fields and the birth of a new year. Later, the Greeks and Romans associated the Dog Star with Orion, The Hunter, and his two hunting dogs Canis Major and Canis Minor. The Greeks named the constellation Sirius, "the Scorcher" as they believed the Dog Star was responsible for the hot weather and listlessness that plagued them in the summer months.
More amazing is that the Dogon of Mali have had an excellent understanding of the solar system, particularly the Sirius Star System. The Dogon, in addition to plotting the orbits of the stars circling Sirius, identified one of its companions - Sirius B - as being one of the densest and tiniest stars in our galaxy. The most notable aspect of their observations is that Sirius B is invisible to the unaided eye. A photo of this star was not obtainable until 1970. The Sirius star system was suspected of having more than one star when the erratic movement of Sirius, the Dog Star, was noticed in 1844. The knowledge of the Dogon of Mali, precedes the knowledge of the ancient Egyptians by hundreds of years. The religious beliefs of the Dogon have been centered around the Sirius star system for thousands of years. Western scientists are just now beginning to prove that the knowledge, the Dogon of Mali have had of the Sirius star system for thousands of years, is absolutely accurate.
In Southern Mali, where the Niger River makes a great bend, live the Dogon people, poor inhabitants who live off the land in the Hombori Mountains, many of them living in caves. In outward appearance, there is little to distinguish the Dogon from other West African peoples; and yet they, along with three related tribes, have preserved, in religious secrecy for many hundreds of years, information about what has until recently been a very rare phenomenon.
At the very core of their religious teachings has been preserved a detailed knowledge about a star that is completely invisible to the naked eye, and so difficult to observe even through a telescope, that no photographs of it could be obtained before 1970. The Dogon say that this knowledge, which they disclosed to French anthropologists in the 1930s and 1940s, was given to them by visitors to Earth from another star system.
The star they describe is known to astronomers as Sirius B, but it is known to the Dogon as Po Tolo. Its existence was first suspected by Western astronomers in 1844, when certain irregularities were noticed in the movements of the star Sirius - the brilliant "Dog Star" in the constellation Canus Major ( which we will refer to here as Sirius A). To account for these irregularities, it was presumed that Sirius must be affected by the gravitational pull of an invisible second star, and in 1862, after scrupulous observation, a faint companion star was detected, and labeled Sirius B.
It seemed, however, way too small to exercise any noticeable influence on the main giant star, Sirius, which is twice as large as our own sun and 20 times more brilliant. Po Tolo, the Dogon name for Sirius B, was derived from tolo, which means "star", and Po, which is the name of the smallest seed known to them. This name, they say, fits the star perfectly, because Sirius B is, as they say, "the smallest thing there is." They also claim that it is "the heaviest star", since in it the element earth is replaced by an immensely heavy metal called sagala. They maintain further that the little star is white. Thus they accurately described (as they had for hundreds, even thousands of years) this star as being a "White Dwarf", a discovery (or should we say "re-discovery") only made by astronomers in modern times using the most sophisticated astronomical equipment.
The Dogon accurately state further that Sirius B's orbit is elliptical, with Sirius A at one focus of the ellipse (as it truly is as confirmed by astronomers), that the orbital period of B around A is 50 years, and that the little star turns on its own axis (also confirmed by modern astronomy).
The Dogon also describe a third star in the Sirus system, called Emme Ya, ("sorghum female"). In orbit around this third star, Sirius C, is a single planet. From this planet originate "The Nommo", the amphibious spacemen that the Dogon maintain came to Earth in the distant past and taught their descendants these things. To date, Emme Ya has not been visually observed, but in 1997 its presence in the Sirius was confirmed by mathematical data (go to link SIRIUS C for full information on this).
The significance of Sirius B to the Dogon is that it was the first star made by God and is the axis of the universe. From it, all matter and all souls are produced by a complex spiral movement that the Dogon symbolize in woven baskets. All souls, whatever their final destination, first gravitate from Po Tolo to Emme Ya.
In addition to their knowledge of Sirius B and C, the Dogon astronomical lore includes the fact that the planet Saturn has rings, and Jupiter has four major moons. They have four calendars, one for the Sun, Moon, Sirius, and Venus, and they have long known that planets orbit the Sun.
The mysterious "Nommos" who were sent to earth from the Sirius star system for the benefit of mankind landed somewhere to the northeast of the Dogon's present homeland. When their spaceship landed after a spinning or whirling descent with a great rush of wind, it skidded to a stop, scoring the ground, and "spurting blood." After it came to rest, something with four legs appeared that dragged the vessel to a hollow in the terrain, which filled with water until the craft floated in it. At that time, a new star was seen traversing the sky from which the landing vessel originated (the Mother Ship).
According to the Dogon, the Nommos were more fishlike than human, and they had to live in water. They were saviors and spiritual guardians. The principal Nommo was "crucified and resurrected" and in the future will again visit the Earth, this time in human form. Later he will assume his amphibious form and will rule the world from the waters. They state further that this Nommo "divided his body among men to feed them; that is why it is also said that the universe 'had drunk of his body', the Nommo also made men drink. He gave all his life principles to human beings."
Strangely enough, an almost identical tale was received by and passed on by the SUMERIANS and Babylonians. They state that amphibious beings called "Oannes" came to the Earth for the benefit of the human race. Their egg-shaped vessel landed in the Red Sea.
The Dogon themselves insist that their descendants did not always live in their present homeland, and evidence suggests that they are descendants of Berbers who migrated south from Libya in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD and who, having intermarried with local blacks, were fully established in the Mali area by the 11th century. Therefore, is it possible that the Dogon "Nommo" and the Babylonian "Oannes" are different representations of the same event? If the Dogon really came to Mali from the northeast, they may have originally been close enough to the Red Sea to have been witnesses to these events along with the Babylonians.
The one problem to that is, however, the fact that the Babylonians and the Egyptians were in heavy contact with each other, yet the Egyptians only esteemed Sirius A (the star that is visible to us with the naked eye) and never mentioned anything about it having two companions (unless a future discovery about the Egyptians changes this information). Because of this fact, Robert Temple, the indefatigable investigator and expert on the Dogon/Sirius Mystery, believes that the Dogon and the Babylonians experienced separate, but similar events.
The existence of Sirius C, held as fact by the primitive Dogon tribe in W. Africa for the past 5,000 years, has finally been officially confirmed by modern day astronomers. But before delving into that, it is best to sum up our current available knowledge of the Sirius star system as a whole, using accepted "orthodox" science.
Known to the Egyptians as the "Dog Star" or the "Nile Star", Sirius (the main star, which is visible to us and which we will refer to as Sirius A) has also been given the nicknames of "Scorching One" or "Sparkling One" due to its brilliance being above other stars in our night sky. Sirius A is several times more brilliant than a standard, first magnitude star. Astronomers have even been able to observe it through their instruments during the day at high noon.
The rapid twinkling effect of Sirius A as seen in the night sky, causing it to pulsate in a series of myriad colors, is due to the distortion of Earth's atmosphere, and is particularly noticeable when the star is at low altitudes. It's color is in fact a dazzling white with tinges of blue. In comparison with our sun, Sirius A is an A1 type main sequence star, about 23 times brighter than our sun, 1.8 times the diameter, and 2.35 times the mass. Its surface and core temperatures are double that of our own star.
The Sirius system is 8.7 light years distance from Earth, and is the 5th known closest star (Bernard's Star being the closest). It has been speculated that Sirius A was once a Red Star in ancient times due to repeated documentation from cources such as Cicero, Horace, Ptolemy, and Seneca labelling it as "ruddy", "reddish," or "blazing like fire." In the 1892 issue of Astronomy & Astrophysics, it was concluded that "the results of this research (into ancient recorded texts) seem to establish beyond doubt the ancient redness of the star." But the later, more modern day "discovery" of Sirius B, the famous companion star to Sirius A seems to answer the above puzzle.
The astronomer and mathematician F.W. Bessel found, in the ten years between 1834 and 1844, that Sirius A had wavy irregularities in its movement through space, and concluded that the only calculation that could account for the irregularity demonstrated that Sirius A had to have a companion, invisible to the naked eye and in certain telescopes under even normal viewing conditions that revolved, that revolved around it in an orbital period of 50 years. The theoretical orbit of this "companion" was calculated by C.H.F. Peters in 1851, but visual contact was not made until January 1862, when astronomer Alvan G. Clark discerned it using the 18.5 inch refracting telescope at Dearborn Observatory on the campus of Northwestern University in Illinois. (This was the largest refracting telescope in the world at that time.)
The companion, labeled Sirius B, or "the Pup" (in deference to Sirius A's being labelled the "Dog Star"), has a weak magnitude of 8.65. Over a period of 50 years (the length of its orbit around Sirius A) the distance of Sirius B from Sirius A varies from 3 inches to 11.5 inches (apparent telescopic viewing). To the layman this means that the farther away it is from the overpowering brilliance of Sirius A (11.5 inches apparent viewing being the farthest), the easier it is to see. the next optimum viewing date for Sirius B's furthest separation from Sirius A is 2025 A.D.
Furthermore, for any hope of seeing it, one would need a fairly large aperture telescope, with something affixed to block the glare from Sirius A, and Sirius B would have to be at least 6 inches apparent viewing distance away from the mother Star (the only way to make visual contact of Sirius B at 6 inches one would have to know its exact position at that point.) In 1962 it was found, during tests with magnifications ranging from 200 to 900x optical power, that using 900x at Sirius B's more wider separations (the 11.5 inch distance arriving in 1975), it was possible to see the small companion star without seeing Sirius A anywhere in the viewing field.
The first successful photograph of Sirius B was not taken until 1970 after several attempts over the previous decades to capture one. The achievement was finally made by Dr. Irving W. Lindenblad of the U.S. Naval Observatory in Washington DC.
NATURE OF SIRIUS B
Sirius B is still an astonishment to modern day Astronomy. Although the greatest astonishment lies in the fact that a primitive tribe in W. Africa preserved all of this knowledge for the past 5,000 years without any optical viewing instruments (and without the slightest clue how to make such a thing), and modern day Astronomy, (only with all the most sophisticated technology at its disposal) has done little more than confirm that ancient knowledge (and credit itself with the discovery), no orthodox astronomer alive today will admit this. Having thus given credit where credit is due (to the illiterate and primitive Dogon Tribe), let us glance at modern astronomy's confirmation of their 5,000 year old knowledge.
The mass of Sirius B is almost equal to that of our Sun. However, it is abnormally low in luminosity for such a figure, being less than 1/400 that of the Sun. This could only have been explained in one of two ways: either the star burned at an extremely low temperature, or it had an extremely small diameter.
The resolution to this question came in 1915 through the observations and experiments of W. Adams at Mt. Wilson Observatory. Devoid of the complicated astronomical designations, in plain English, Sirius B is exceedingly small (only 2% the size of our Sun), is four times brighter than our Sun, several thousand degrees hotter than our Sun, and only slightly cooler than Sirius A itself. Sirius B was the pioneer of what was soon to be labeled "White Dwarf Stars". With a mass nearly equal to that of our Sun, but a diameter some 40 or 50 times smaller, the typical White Dwarf must have an incredibly high density. Sirius B is about 90,000 times the density of our Sun, or 125,000 times the density of water. A cubic inch of this star's material weighs about 2.25 tons.
Sirius B has a diameter of only 19,000 miles (making it smaller in size than the planets Uranus or Neptune in our solar system). It is 10,000 times fainter in luminosity than Sirius A. Sirius B's orbit around Sirius A is elliptical. Measurements by K. Rakos using the one-meter aperture telescope at La Silla in Chile showed that Sirius B, before ending up as its current status of White Dwarf, showed plenty of evidence of having been in the Red Giant phase as recently as 2,000 years ago. In this stage, it would have been extremely brilliant in luminosity, and this red color "bleeding" with the blue-white color of Sirius A, would have caused the Sirius system, as seen from Earth with the naked eye, to have been a reddish or ruddy color, thus confirming the aforementioned ancient documents stating that Sirius was "a red star."
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