Nazca Lines
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What are They?

The greatest scratch pad on Earth

Runway for alien spaceships? That's just one of the fanciful theories on the purpose of the Nazca lines. (Photo courtesy Persis B. Clarkson. All images are clickable for larger versions.)
Runway for alien spaceships? That's just one of the fanciful theories on the purpose of the Nazca lines. (Photo courtesy Persis B. Clarkson.)
In the hot hazy desert of southwest Peru, couched between the Andes Mountains and the Peruvian coast, lies what many have called one of the most baffling enigmas of archeology. Huge geometric patterns and spirals, animal figures including a monkey, a spider and an 'owl man', and thousands of perfectly straight lines are immaculately etched onto the desert's surface. The last of them were drawn about a thousand years ago. Known as the Nazca lines, the drawings have mystified scientists since they were first discovered in the 1920s.

From ground level, the earth drawings, or geoglyphs as they're called, seem like a confused mass of lines. It's only when viewed from the air, that one sees how the lines and figures convey a sense of purpose, of organization. But for whom? Why? And how did they get such large drawings — one of the lines is 65 kilometers long, and some of the animal drawings are more than two soccer fields long — so precise?

The 'owl' man
The 'owl' man
Phylliss Pitluga is a senior astronomer at the Chicago Adler Planetarium. She's studied the lines for more than ten years — from an astronomical perspective. The lines first captivated her when she saw them from above in an airplane.

"When I got over there and flew over the site, I saw a sense of organization that doesn't show up in small close-up photos," says Pitluga. "I was fascinated and I was compelled to want to know more."

She's not the only one. Ever since the founder of Peruvian archeology, Julio Tello, first recorded the lines in 1926, scientists have spent years puzzling over the riddle of the Nazca lines. Still, not one clear theory exists today that answers these basic questions, making the drawings one of the world's most intriguing unsolved mysteries.

Thousands of lines, hundreds of patterns

Scattered over about 500 square kilometers of an arid plateau between two river valleys around the city of Nazca, perhaps the most famous of the drawings are the biomorphic figures: a spider, a monkey, a whale, a snake, a lizard, a flower, a man and 18 bird shapes, including the hummingbird and the condor. There are about 50 of these figures ranging in size from 25 meters to 275 meters long. Despite their fame, these are confined to a small corner of the desert — or the pampa, as it is called by the Peruvians.

The hummingbird
The hummingbird
Most of the pampa is dominated by 1,300 kilometers of perfectly straight lines, some as narrow as 6 inches and others as wide as hundreds of meters, crisscrossing or running parallel to each other. There are also 300 geometric figures, mostly trapezoids, triangles, zig-zags and spirals.

The Nazcans

The Nazca lines are thought to have been made by the Nazca Indians who lived in the region between 300 BC and 800 AD. Their pottery has been found at the Nazca lines. Predecessors of the Incas, the Nazca Indians didn't leave any evidence of a written language, and none of their descendants survive today.

But we do know that they were farmers, says Persis B. Clarkson, an archeologist and expert in geoglyphs at the University of Winnipeg. Although the region is one of the driest in the world, the land is fertile, and the Nazcans made use of a subterranean irrigation system to water their crops. They made channels and tunnels to access the water system, which would have required a way to regulate the water system, says Clarkson. And that implies that Nazcan society was a hierarchical one.

The spider (Image courtesy UFO Folklore)
The spider (Image courtesy UFO Folklore)
They also worshipped deities. Some of the pictures on their pottery are of figures with both animal and human characteristics — and some very scary features, says Clarkson. Exaggerated eyes and large fangs on their half-feline, half-human creatures, for example, suggest "that there was a greater power out there than humans."

Their huge burial sites also show that they paid special attention to their dead, placing them in their graves in the fetal position, wrapped with beautiful cloths.

Simple Methods

Peruvian desert a perfect tableau for Nazcan 'artists'

1,300 kilometres of lines, 300 geometric figures and about 50 biomorphic drawings are etched onto the Peruvian desert. (All images are clickable for larger versions.)
1,300 kilometers of lines, 300 geometric figures and about 50 biomorphic drawings are etched onto the Peruvian desert. (All images are clickable for larger versions.)
The Nazca lines aren't the only geoglyphs in the world. The tradition of drawing figures on the ground spans the pacific coastal desert areas from central California to northern Chile. The drawings at Nazca, however, are unique because they are so large and so densely packed within a 500 square kilometer area in southwest Peru. Straight lines that go on for hundreds of kilometers, only swerving out by a few degrees, huge trapezoids and spirals, and animal figures, some of which can be seen in their entirety from the air — have been puzzling archeologists since the 1920s. How did the Nazcans make them so precise? For whom? And why?

As it turns out, how they got their drawings so precise is the one question on which scientists can agree. The Peruvian desert provided a perfect tableau for the Nazcan 'artists'. Covered by fist-sized volcanic rocks, blackened and varnished from exposure to the atmosphere, the desert or pampa surface makes a sharp contrast to the soft yellow soil only inches underneath the stones. By simply removing the overlying stones and piling them on each side, the Nazcans were able to sketch their drawings onto what may be the greatest scratch pad in the world. In another climate, the drawings would have been obliterated in months, but Nazca is one of the driest and most windless regions on Earth. Climate and geology conspired to create an ideal medium for the Nazcans — leaving their distinctive images to be admired and pondered over thousands of years later.

The desert surface is covered with dark, shiny pebbles which contrast with the softer yellow soil underneath.
The desert surface is covered with dark, shiny pebbles which contrast with the softer yellow soil underneath.
But how were the Nazcans able to get the hundreds of kilometers-long lines so straight, and their figures in such perfect proportions?

No spectacular engineering feat

Since many of the drawings must be viewed from the air to be seen in their entirety, the task of getting such large figures so perfectly proportioned and the lines so straight was thought to have required an observer from above to guide the drawings. This led some to hypothesize that the Nazcans may have been capable of flight!

But Dr. Persis B. Clarkson, an archeologist and geoglyph expert at the University of Winnipeg says the technology required was very easy and straightforward. "It was not a difficult technology ... all you need is the will." As Clarkson explains, all it took was careful and diligent attention to sight lines.

For the straight lines, two wooden stakes could be used to guide the placement of a third stake along the line. One person 'sights along' the first two stakes and instructs a second person where to place the third stake. Strings could also have been used to help ensure the lines were straight. This process could be repeated for hundreds of kilometers with due diligence.

During the summer of 1984, ten volunteers from Earthwatch, an international nonprofit organization that supports scientific field research, helped Anthony Aveni, an astronomer and anthropologist at Colgate University in Hamilton, New York in a study of the Nazca lines. They constructed a straight line that wound up into a spiral 35 meters long and one meter wide in just an hour and a half — without a printed plan. One group squatted in the interior of the figure, uncovering the stones to let the pale yellow soil underneath to show, while another group moved these stones to the edge of the figures and arranged them into piles about a half a meter high. A third group supervised the edging process to ensure that things lined up correctly. The result, says Aveni, was a figure that was as accurate as any Nazca drawing measured with a surveyor's instrument.

By extrapolating their results, Aveni and his team concluded that the work crew could have cleared an average-sized trapezoid spanning an area of 16,000 square meters in about a week. With a work force of 10,000 people, Aveni estimates that every line and trapezoid on the entire pampa could have been made in less than a decade.

Were the Nazcans capable of flight?

Many of the Nazca drawings etched onto the Peruvian desert are so large, they can only be seen in their entirety from the air. This has led some to speculate that the Nazca Indians, who are thought to have made them, were capable of flight. This idea comes from two sources. First, paintings on pottery found in the area show images of what may have been balloons or kites. Second, wide, circular 'burn-pits' containing blackened rocks have been found at the end of many of the lines, which may have been launch sites for hot-air balloons.

To test out this theory, an American resident of Peru, Bill Spohrer, assembled a balloon using only materials and technology that he felt would have been available to the Nazcans. Their tombs revealed a fabric with a finer weave than present-day parachute material and tighter than hot-air balloons. Using a cotton whose weave and weight was nearly identical to the Nazcan cloth samples, Spohrer and Jim Woodman, a member of the Miami-based International Explorers Society, made a hot-air balloon in the shape of an inverted triangle with a hole at the bottom to let in the heat energy from the smoke of a burn-pit. A banana-shaped gondola, woven from reeds harvested along the shores of Lake Titicaca on the Peru-Bolivia border, was stitched to the balloon.

In November 1975, with copilot Julian Nott, Woodman took to the air in the balloon, dubbed Condor 1 — after the condor figures etched onto the desert — using the heat of a 'burn-pit' for lift-off. Within seconds, they floated to about 400 feet. But after only three minutes, were brought back down again when the air in the balloon cooled. When the two men hopped out of the gondola, the lightened balloon shot up again. It went up to an altitude of 1,200 feet and sailed several kilometers before sinking back to the ground for its second and final time.

The balloon had 'flown' for 14 minutes — long enough, say the balloonists, to prove that the Nazca Indians could have taken to the sky in a hot-air balloon. However, despite their enthusiasm, there is no evidence that the Nazcans actually could have flown. The theory is fascinating speculation at best.

Deities and Pilgrimages

Rituals, deity worship — were these the purposes of the Nazca lines?

The dog (Most of the Nazca line images are clickable for larger versions.)
The dog (Most of the Nazca line images are clickable for larger versions.)
Spanning 500 square kilometers of the arid Peruvian desert, or pampa as it is called, the huge trapezoids, animal figures and long straight lines etched in the earth have led to some fanciful theories about their purpose. Runways for alien spaceships, the site of gigantic pre-Columbian Olympic Games and even ancient minimalist art, the Nazca lines have left a tantalizing legacy that have us wanting to ponder their usage. Yet they haven't offered quite enough information to help us solve that mystery.

Paul Kosok, an American geographer, was one of the first people to study the lines. He proposed that the straight lines represented 'the largest astronomy book in the world', believing they were intended to point to astronomical events at the horizon. He came to the conclusion after witnessing the sun setting almost exactly over the end of one of the long single lines — on June 22, the winter solstice in the Southern Hemisphere, the shortest day of the year. The theory was further explored by Maria Reiche, a German mathematician, who spent more than half of her life measuring and mapping the lines. She believed that the lines predict the positions of the Sun, Moon, planets and stars and that they were used to determine the correct time of year for planting seeds, the annual appearance of water in the rivers, and the right times to harvest the crops.

The enigmatic drawings span the desert near the city of Nazca.
The enigmatic drawings span the desert near the city of Nazca.
The astronomical hypothesis, however, was pretty much disproved (sort of!) in 1968, when American astronomer Gerald Hawkins plotted the lines to analyze, by computer, their relationship with various celestial bodies. Applying the same technique he used to deduce an astronomical key for Stonehenge several years earlier, Hawkins found that the Nazca lines — at least the ones he studied — were random, astronomically speaking.

But both the astronomy hypothesis and rebuttal were misguided in one critical aspect, says Dr. Persis B. Clarkson, an archeologist and geoglyph expert at the University of Winnipeg. They both assumed the Nazca Indians had the same constellations that the Europeans did.

"Very little attempt has been made to look at Andean conceptions for constellations," says Clarkson, leaving any previous astronomical interpretations with a western and northern hemisphere bias. As Clarkson explains, some formations can't be seen in one hemisphere, but can be in the other.

Hummingbird (Image courtesy UFO Folklore)
Hummingbird (Image courtesy UFO Folklore)
"Without understanding how the Andeans look at the world, you can't even begin to say the 'monkey' aligns with Orion or whatever."

Like a growing number of archeologists, Clarkson believes the lines were made in relation to irrigation systems and religious pilgrimages. The idea was first proposed by Peruvian scholar Mejia Xesspe in 1926, when he suggested they might be sacred roads.

Precursor to the Inca ceque system?

The theory is based on the tradition of the Incas — the people who succeeded the Nazcans — of imbuing power to landscape features. In a study of the lines done with Anthony Aveni, an astronomer and anthropologist at Colgate University in Hamilton, New York, the researchers found similarities between the Nazca lines and the so-called ceque system of the previous Inca capital of Cuzco, about 250 kilometers east of Nazca. The city has four roadways, or suyus, leading out to the most remote areas of the Inca kingdom. And according to Spanish chroniclers, each of the roadways were couched within 41 imaginary straight lines called ceques, which radiated outward from Coricancha, a temple in Cuzco and the center of the Inca universe. The ceques were specified by actual physical sacred places or huacas — some 328 of them, eight or nine of which were arranged on each ceque. The last huacas of many ceques were located at underground water sources of Cuzco's underground irrigation system.

The biomorphic figures of the Nazca lines. Adapted from Maria Reiche
The biomorphic figures of the Nazca lines. Adapted from Maria Reiche
The ceque system at Cuzco has a number of functions. It provided a calendar, with each huaca representing a day in the agricultural year. The ceques also functioned as astronomical sight lines. For example, points out Aveni, "the third huaca in the 13th ceque of the southwest quadrant consisted of a large hill with two markers. When the sun reached them, it was time to sow." The Inca had transformed their environment into an agricultural clock.

But that wasn't all that the ceques were for. They were also often the routes of pilgrimage, and used to unite the different social classes of their society. So, that the ceques were "ranked hierarchically in groups according to which class of people (nobility, part-nobility or commoner) worshipped at and cared for their particular huacas," explains Aveni.

The Nazca lines also radiated outwards from landscape features such as hills.
The Nazca lines also radiated outwards from landscape features such as hills.
When Aveni and his team compared the Cuzco ceque system to the Nazca lines, from maps made by Reiche, they found that the Nazca lines also tended to radiate outwards, like the spokes of a wheel from 'ray centers.' Could it be that the Incan ceque system was based on a more archaic form — perhaps the Nazca lines?

To answer the question, the group measured 800 straight lines, and with the use of a photographic survey, mapped all the measurements. Amazingly enough, each of the 'centres' of the Nazca lines "bore an uncanny likeness to one another. Each one consisted of a natural hill or low mound topped by a rock cairn that may have served as an identifying marker," says Aveni.

In fact, there are "two to 40 lines raying out of any given hilltop," says Clarkson. And the vast majority of the lines connect to other hills, about 30 to 40 meters high.

The straight lines at Nazca 'rayed' out from a hill in all directions or in one direction. (diagram courtesy Persis B. Clarkson)
The straight lines at Nazca 'rayed' out from a hill in all directions or in one direction. (diagram courtesy Persis B. Clarkson)
Many of the lines opened into the large trapezoidal patterns, which on average, were about 16,000 square meters, or about four football fields large. The team also discovered that the trapezoids' axes oriented along the water sources, with the skinny end pointing upstream about two-thirds of the time.

"All these facts seem to point to at least one absolute certainty: the construction of the lines was connected in some important way with water," says Aveni.

The measurements also support the idea that the Nazca lines performed similar functions as the Inca ceques. "It's not such a horrible leap to apply the Inca traditions to the Nazcans," says Clarkson. The Nazcans predate the Incans by 2,000 to 500 years depending on the region.

Johan Reinhard, an archeologist well-known for his research on Incan ice mummies, came to the same basic conclusion after studying the Nazca lines.

Mountain gods and sacred pilgrimages

"The straight lines are sacred pathways to a place, from which they worshipped the water source [mountains]," says Reinhard. "Now that can be symbolic worship towards the ocean, or it can be, as it normally was, invoking the mountain deities."

Exactly how they used the lines is more open to speculation. But, as Clarkson points out, many of the lines are about as wide as footpaths, and almost all the drawings are made from one single, continuous line, leading her to conclude that they probably walked along the lines. "The figures invite you to walk along them."

One of the greatest myths of the lines is that they have to be seen from above to fully appreciate them, says Clarkson. "But, that's only because that's how they're used to seeing things." For example, we view a painting on a wall by looking straight at it.

By walking the lines, Clarkson says that one can visually create an image of the figure, providing another way of 'looking' at them. She herself drew an image of a particular drawing by 'walking' it. When she viewed the same figure from above, what she drew matched the pattern she saw from the air. And she insists she's not an artist in the least.

So, that would provide an explanation for the 1,300 kilometers of straight lines. But, what about the much older animal figures and spirals?

"The sky is the limit," on that one, says Clarkson.

Reinhard, however, proposes that the animal figures represent the forms taken on by the mountain gods, which are still worshipped today in Andean culture. "The mountain gods take the form of different kinds of animals, or are believed to control different kinds of animals."

He also provides a hypothesis for why the figures were so large that many can only be seen in their entirety from the air — namely so that they would be clearly visible to the mountain gods, presumed to exist up above.

But many questions still remain. "I don't think [my theory] necessarily explains every single thing," admits Reinhard. "People are too complex for that. And it's too long a period."

Perhaps the legacy of the Nazca lines is to captivate our imaginations, as they might have of the Nazca Indians. As Maria Reiche, who dedicated more than 50 years of her life studying the drawings, once said, "we will never know all the answers, that's what a good mystery is all about."

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1. Killer Whale
2. Wing
3. Baby Condor
4. Bird
5. Animal
6. Spiral
7. Lizard
8. Tree
9. Hands
10. Spiral
11. Spider
12. Flower
13. Dog
14. Astronaut
15. Triangle
16. Whale
17. Trapazoids
18. Star
19. Pelican
20. Bird
21. Trapazoid
22. Hummingbird
23. Trapezoid
24. Monkey
25. Llama
26. Trapezoids

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Maria Reiche - Astronomical Calendar - She was the most famous Nazca Researcher. Lines should show in direction of the rising of important stars and planetary events like sun solstices. Formations like the spider and the monkey could show star constellations like Orion and Ursa Mayor.

The big problem of all astronomical theories is the unknowing of the age. The direction of stars is changing within centuries because the phenomena of precession of the equinoxes.

Reiche led a determined effort to discredit theories of extraterrestrial visitors. The strategy of this attack has been to argue that the Nazca Indians constructed the Lines relatively recently - some time between 300 BC and AD 800.

In support of this possibility, some scientists have put forward ingenious ideas on how the geoglyphs could theoretically have been designed from the ground. The more important evidence, however, is that which attempts to link the Lines definitively to the Nazcan culture. Here, neither of the two key pieces of evidence survive close scrutiny.

The first piece of evidence is a series of radiocarbon dates, based on ceramic and wood remains which were left at the Lines by the Nazcan people. It is claimed that this proves that the Nazcans constructed the Lines. On the contrary, the dating of these materials tells us only that the Nazcans lived in the area of the Nazca Lines. Since the Lines themselves cannot be radiocarbon dated, the possibility remains that they already existed when the Nazcan culture emerged.

The second piece of evidence is the alleged resemblance of the Nazca geoglyphs to certain features found on Nazcan pottery. This is an important issue because it potentially offers proof that the Nazcans had either designed the images or at least viewed them from the air.

Maria Reiche, the German mathematician and archaeologist most famous for her research into the enigmatic figures of Nazca, died in 1998 at the age of 95. She is buried in the arid valley she loved so well.

Professor Gerald Hawkins and his group went to Nazca to prove the astronomical Theory of Maria Reiche but was unsuccessful. In 1968, a study by the National Geographic Society determined that, while some of the Nazca lines did point to the positions of the Sun, Moon and certain stars two thousand years ago, it was no more than could be expected by mere chance. In 1973, Dr Gerald Hawkins studied 186 lines with a computer programme and found that only 20 per cent had any astronomical orientation - again no more than by pure chance.

In 1982, Anthony Aveni obtained similar results.

Georg Petersen - 1980 - pointed out that Reiche's theory did not explain the different lengths and widths of the lines. More recently, Johan Reinhard has noted that the surrounding mountains provided a ready-made and much more effective mechanism for the Nazcans to use as a solar calendar; the lines would thus have been quite superfluous to them. In addition to this avalanche of scientific opinion, we should also note that Reiche, like von Daniken, has failed to explain the significance of the animal geoglyphs.

Simone Waisbard - Astronomical Calendar - The drawing of Nazca are a giant astronomical calendar. Further the Nazca-line-system was used to measure the precipitation value. Figures, especially seabirds, have a connection to the meteorological prophecy system of the Nazca-Culture. Her ideas for the trapezoid formations: places for holy animals before sacrifice them, or field claims connected with filter galleries, observatories or places for ritual ceremonies of the different clans.

Erich von Dδniken - Long time ago visitors from other stars visited the Earth. They landed at Nazca. During the landing stones was blown away by the power of rocket propulsion. By approaching more the power was increasing and the cleaned band broader. In this way the first trapezes emerged. Later the Aliens disappeared and left confused people. Like in the modern cargo cults they tried to call the Gods back by drawing lines, figures and trapezes. He discovered the GGF/Mandala/Zodiac and the mirror - Formation and compares them with modern VASIS or PAPI-Signs.

Alan F. Alford - Negroid Slaves - the Nazca-Lines was made by Negroid Slaves of the Tihuanaco Culture. After a revolution the Negroid population destroyed some figure, this is the explanation for overdrawn zigzag-formations. Later this people went in northern direction and founded Chavin and the Olmec culture.

Robert Bast - A memory of the Deluge - The animal, plant and human-shaped figures are lying together on the ground. So it could be a memorial place of the big flood. Many cultures of our world know deluge-myths, you can find a couple of them at his Side.

Gilbert de Jong - A Nazcan Zodiac was himself in Nazca and measured the GGF by GPS. He obtained a length of the square side of about 54,7 Meter. In the formation he recognized a Zodiac.

Nazca Figurine depicting Solar Eclipse
It all comes back to the Sun - Eye (Ra) -
Light at a time of transition of consciousness

Robin Edgar - the Nazca-Figures were inspired by, and intended to be seen by, the (so-called) Eye of God that is manifested during total solar eclipses. An extraordinary series of solar eclipses coincided with the construction of the Nasca lines. Some Lines are aligned with the winter solstice, a less spectacular but more regular, death and rebirth of the Sun God.

Nazca Lines and the Eye in the Sky Eclipse

Michael Coe - Ceremonial Places - believes the Nazca Lines are sacred paths to walk by specific rites. But primary the lines was a offering for elders,heaven- and mountain-deities who spent water for fields.

Siegfried Waxmann recognized a culture atlas of the human history in the Nazca-line-system.

Archaeologist Frederico Kauffmann-Doig - the Nazca Lines are magic lines which origin from the cat cult in Chavin de Huantar.

Georg A. von Breunig believes the Nazca Lines were used for sprinting to honor especial gods or ritual competitions. This theory was supported by the professor Hoimar von Ditfurth.

Markus Reindel - Dowsing - The Nazca-Figures are markers for subterranean waterflow. Trapezoides show the broadness of the waterstream, zigzaglines show where they end, lines show into direction of the puquitos. Reindel sympatizes with Johnsons Theory, additionally he explain the nature of the figures by rod-dowsing (to find the subterranean water) and shamanstic flights (to overview the figures).

Hermann E. Bossi - The Nazca-Code - based on a formation called the GGF, Mandala or Zodiac that was discovered by Erich von Dδniken 1995. This formation include a plenty of different combination possibilities and include information about the Star HD 42807 at different times and it's planet. Other formations like the monkey seems to be of this code too. The same code is to find in other places like Stonehenge, Avebury and Borobudur, but also by Crop Circles.

The Code of Carl Munck: The Ancient Geomatria of Numbers - - The Nazca Line ground markings locate themselves on The Code Matrix system. - Nazca Lines and Archaeocryptography

The ancient sites around the world are very precisely positioned on a global coordinate system in relation to the position of the Great Pyramid at Giza. The positions of the sites are given in the geometry of their construction. A very ancient system of numbers was used in the system, which we will call Gematria.

Gematrian numbers are found in ancient myths and religions, including the Bible. Gematrian numbers were used in systems of weights and measures by ancient peoples, including the Greeks, the Egyptians, the Persians, the Babylonians and the Romans.
The Code system uses mathematical constants, such as pi and the radian. The system also uses conventions that are still in use, such as the 360 degree circle, 60 minute degree, 60 second minute, the base-ten numbering system, the 12-inch foot, and the 5280-foot mile.
The ancient Mayans used Gematrian numbers in their very accurate timekeeping.
The Nazca Line ground markings "locate themselves" on The Code Matrix System.

Professor Helmut Tributsch - Fata Morgana -important cult places like Stonehenge, the Pyramids and naturally Nazca were built on places where often the Fata Morgana - Phenomena occurs. In this way People could see the Fata Morgana of the Nazca-Lines.

Jiri Mruzek - The Seal of Atlantis Complete complex solution of the monkey's figure. It involves geometrical code, which speaks of specific aspects of analytical geometry. This code coincides with the code of prehistorical La Marche, France.

John D. Miller - 177 Feet - analyzes different buildings worldwide. So he found in ancient buildings and old cathedrals often the value of 177 feet. His theories are based on several holy numbers and units, so he believes that there is a deeper importance within.

Thomas Wick - A plan of a Cathedral - private researcher of ancient mysteries. When he saw the figure of the GGF, he recognized the ground principals of a cathedral.

Professor Henri Stierlin - loom - the Nazca-Indians used the line-system as loom. In the paracas-culture was made textiles witch was made of one string. But the Indians hadn't wheels and looms, so they organized hundreds of men who held the string. Their position was defined by the lines.

Dr. Zoltan Zelko - Map - Hungarian mathematician who analyzed the Nazca-line-system and compared with other ancient places in Peru. Nazca could be a map of a 100 x 800 kilometer including region around the Titicaca-Lake.

Prof. Helaine Siverman - Clan Signs - the figures are clan signs of different Indian clans in the region of Nazca.

Prof. Dr. Aldon Mason - Signs for Gods - The main interest of Mason are the tombs and the deformation of skulls of the Nazca-Culture. Nazca Lines are Signs for Gods in the Sky.

William H. Isbell - Provision of Work - the kings of Nazca ordered the drawing of the Nazca-lines to control the population. When they did work they couldn't make children at the same time. Why this? Isbell has the idea the Nazca-Indians wasn't able to store field fruits, so in good years the population were increasing to strong.

Albrecht Kottmann divided the figures into different parts and analyzed them in a geometrical way. So he divided a bird of 286 Meter length into 22 Parts. He found that the head takes two parts, the neck five parts, the body three parts and the other twelve parts for the beak.The proportion between the beak and the rest is 6:5. He believes the geometric signs are a picture writing system with giant and small letters.

Ley Lines - Paul Devereux


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From Ellie - The Nazca Lines are another stone marker in the geological blueprint of our reality. As one quests for answers to the hidden mysteries of our creation - one must look above and below to determine the past, present and future.

There is something to said be said for each of the theoires above, for in truth each has a certain degree of validity. Finding answers once again becomes a game in which all roads lead back to the 'Eye' - the creational source of all things. In Egypt it was the Eye of Ra - The Eye of God.

I have always believed that all of creation is part of a geometric blueprint that repeats in cycles of time created by the same consciousness. Stone markers are placed in power points around the planet - as they are places humans are drawn to explore. The markers link together - and to the universal game board - based on creational geometry.

The clues are all universal - the flower of life - gods from the skies - spirals of consciousness - humans - animals - candles=sacred flame - birds=ascension back to the heavens. The archetypes - metaphors and symbols are all the same as those found in the myths and legends of our little experience called 3D.

The more one studies the more one realizes that one soul played the roles of all of the gods - left all of the markers - all of which speak of time when the eye - eclipse - light will appear in the heavens once again. It will appear 'out of the blue' - midnight blue.

At this time - humanity will remove its consciousness from the 3D grid of and spiral through the 'stargate' of higher light. That time is almost here. we sense it, feel it, know it to be true or else we would not be here questing for answers.


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On the pampa, south of the Nazca Lines, archaeologists have now uncovered the lost city of the line-builders, Cahuachi. It was built nearly two thousand years ago and was mysteriously abandoned 500 years later. New discoveries at Cahuachi are at last beginning to give us insight into the Nazca people and to unravel the mystery of the Nasca Lines.

Cahuachi is emerging as a treasure trove of the Nazcan culture. As Orefici and his team excavate, discoveries of paintings on preserved pottery, and the ancient technique of weaving that the Nazca people developed, have given an insight into how the lines may have been made, and what they might have been used for, more than 1500 years ago.

Most exciting is the discovery of human remains. Stunningly preserved in the dry soil of the Peruvian desert are the mummified bodies of the Nazcan people themselves.

Skulls from Ica, Peru

Originally believed to have been a military stronghold, Cahuachi is now reckoned to be a place of ritual and ceremony, and Orefici's stunning new evidence confirms this idea. Cahuachi is now revealed to have been abandoned after a series of natural disasters destroyed the city. But before they left it, the Nazcan people covered the city in the arid pampa sand where, until recently, it has remained a barely visible mound in the desert.


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Preserving the Nazca Lines

It is difficult to keep the Nazca Lines free from outside intervention. As with all ancient ruins, such as Machu Piccu, weather by wind and rain, and human tampering will take their toll on these ancient Lines.

In recent years the Nazca Lines have suffered gradual destruction, as tomb raiders seeking pre-Inca artifacts scar the terrain with hundreds of burrows, garbage, among other waste material. A boom in copper and gold mining - including a mine built in 1997 a few feet from a 2,000-year-old, two-mile-long trapezoid -- is defacing parts of the Nazca Lines with tracks from truck traffic.

Over the past decade, advertisers and political campaigns have carved huge messages in the rock and sand between the ancient designs in this region 250 miles south of Lima.

In 1998, floods and mudslides from the El Nino weather pattern seriously eroded several figures.

As electricity reaches the growing local population, utility companies are running power cables over and around the site.

The damage to the Lines underscores Peru's desperate struggle to preserve its national patrimony. Archaeologists say they are watching helplessly as the quest for scholarship and conservation in a country viewed as the cradle of New World civilization is losing out to commercial interests, bleak poverty and the growing popularity of heritage sites as tourist attractions.




Copyright © 2010 Tim Stouse
Last modified: December 10, 2010
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